Social Impact Assessment, Resettlement & Rehabilitation
I. Technical Approach & Methodology
Displacement of people in State, is largely triggered by factors such as, development projects, political conflict, setting up Protected Area Networks and Conservation areas and natural disasters, amongst others. The up-gradation or strengthening of road networks in terms of widening of roads for meeting the present demand and need in terms of infrastructural development for comfort of population and smoothening of commercial activities. Economic development projects brought innumerable benefits but also had unintended detrimental effects on people and natural resources. Human activities have resulted in the disruption of social and communal harmony, the loss of human livelihood and life, the introduction of new diseases, and the destruction of renewable resources. These and other consequences can negate the positive benefits of economic development.
Social impacts are the impacts of developmental interventions on human environment. The impacts of development interventions take different forms. While significant benefits flow in from different development actions, there is also a need to identify and evaluate the negative externalities associated with them. Such impacts not only need to be identified and measured but also need to be managed in such a way that the positive externalities are maximized and the negative externalities are minimized.
The Social Impact Assessment is defined as ‘the consequences to human populations of any public or private actions that alter the ways in which people live, work, play, relate to one another, organize to meet their needs, and generally cope as members of society’. Social impacts are the ‘people impacts’ of development actions. Social impact assessments focus on the human dimension of environments, and seek to identify the impacts on people who benefits and who loses. SIA can help to ensure that the needs and voices of diverse groups and people in a community are taken into account.
Social impacts include changes in people’s way of life, their culture, community, political systems, environment, health and wellbeing, their personal and property rights and their fears and aspirations. The main types of social impacts that occur as a result of project related changes can be grouped into five overlapping categories:
• Lifestyle impacts– on the way people behave and relate to family, friends and cohorts on a day-to-day basis
• Cultural impacts– on shared customs, obligations, values, language, religious belief and other elements which make a social or ethnic group distinct
• Community impacts– on infrastructure, services, voluntary organisations, activity networks and cohesion
• Quality of life impacts– on sense of place, aesthetics and heritage, perception of belonging, security and livability, and aspirations for the future
• Health impacts– on mental, physical and social wellbeing, although these aspects are also the subject of health impact assessment
Social Impact Assessment (SIA) can be defined in terms of efforts to assess or estimate, in advance, the social consequences that are likely to follow specific policy actions (including programs/ projects and the adoption of new policies), and specific government actions. It is a process that provides a framework for prioritizing, gathering, analyzing, and incorporating social information and participation into the design and delivery of developmental interventions. The SIA ensures that the development interventions: (i) are informed and take into account the key relevant social issues; and (ii) incorporate a participation strategy for involving a wide range of stakeholders. Social Assessment (SA), on the other hand, is a process that provides framework for prioritizing, gathering, analyzing and incorporating social information and participation into the design and delivery of development operations.
SIA is a process of analyzing the impact of public/government intervention on the social aspects of the human environment. These aspects include:
• The ways people cope with life through their economy, social systems, and cultural values.
• The ways people use the natural environment, for subsistence, recreation, spiritual activities, cultural activities, and so forth.
• The ways people use environment for shelter, making livelihoods, industry, worship, recreation, gathering together, etc.
• Organization of the community, social and cultural institutions and beliefs
• Preservation of the community identity.
• Art, music, dance, language arts, crafts, and other expressive aspects of culture.
• A group's values and beliefs about appropriate ways to live, family and extra-family relationships, status relationships, means of expression, and other expressions of community.
• The aesthetic and cultural character of a community or neighborhood-its ambiance.
Social impact assessment can be performed some times to get an overview of the social issues associated with the project in terms of some of the parameters:
• Demographic factors: number of people, location, population density, age etc.
• Socio-economic determinants: factors affecting income and productivity, such as risk aversion of the poorest groups, land tenure, access to productive inputs and markets, family composition, kinship reciprocity, and access to labour opportunities and migration.
• Social organization: organization and capacity at the household and community levels affecting participation in local level institutions as well as access to services and information.
• Socio-political context: implementing agencies’ development goals, priorities, commitment to project objectives, control over resources, experience, and relationship with other stakeholder groups.
• Needs and values: stakeholder attitudes and values determining whether development interventions are needed and wanted, appropriate incentives for change and capacity of stakeholders to manage the process of change.
II. Projects undertaken of Social Impact Assessment and Rehabilitation & Resettlement
Departments/ Agencies/ Projects worked with :
The SIA & R&R covers various projects of Highways, Dams, Micro Irrigation Projects, Airport, Roads, Bye-pass, Canal and Government Buildings.
Departments/ Agencies/ Projects worked with :
PPP Division of PWD, Government of Rajasthan
PWD, Chittorgarh Division
Eastern Rajasthan Canal Project(ERCP)
PWD, Alwar Division
WRD, Pratapgarh Division
WRD, Bundi Division
PWD, Nimbahera Division, Chittorgarh
Deputy Commissioner, Ranchi
WRD, Ahuchauli Canal Project, Govt. of Rajasthan, Jhalawar
Ren-ka-Naka MIP, Nimbahea, Chittorgarh